Tuwali Ifugao - English


k


kay’a adjunct. adds emphasis to a statement; in fact, certainly, definitely. Kanan Rosa di umed Manila mu adi kaya. Rosa said she is going to Manila but in fact, she is not. Adika kaya mahaul. Don’t ever be tempted (even if they insist)! Immi-ingleyak an pinhod kun umanamut mo indani bo kaya ya uminghaak. I felt so lonely that I wanted to return home, but after a while I definitely became adjusted. Hinae toan bumdang hidiyen bokon kaya hi Lammooy. That is what I don’t know, roaming spirits there, but definitely not Lammooy. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 9.6.3.2 - Markers of emphasis.)
kayabkab intrans. to flap wings. Pakaognam nan payak nan manok te kumayabkab. Hold the chicken’s wings well because they’ll flap. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: payagpag. (sem. domains: 1.6.4.1 - Animal movement.)
kayam-ut trans. refers to roots of plants clinging to soil or rocks; vines clinging to trees or other plants. Kinayam-utan di wakal nan balat. The vines were clinging to the banana plant. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5A Changing state of site by adding something. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.)
kayang₁ (fr. var. anakkayang) adjunct. expression of amazement and admiration; oh!; wow!; amazing! (sem. domains: 3.4.1.3 - Surprise.) infl. idakkayang
kayang₂ comm. the top of a tree; ridge of a mountain. Maan-anlaak handi ya dimmatongak hi kayang na. I was happy when I got to the top. (sem. domains: 8.5.5 - Spatial relations.)
kayat 1to climb upward. 1.1intrans. to move upward, climbing a stake, tree, or other climbable object. Kimmayat didan u-unga dih mangga. The children climbed the mango tree. Nag-ahak handi kinali adik mo ipidpidwan kumayat. I fell once, that’s why I’ll never climb trees again. Uggek ni-an inilan kumayat handi te ittayak. I didn’t know how to climb trees then because I was small. ‑um‑/‑immi‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Sim: amit, kallehke. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.) 1.2intrans. to climb from one upright object to another with durative aspect. Mungkayyatan da. They are climbing from tree to tree. muN‑ ‑an/nuN an . 2to climb something. 2.1trans. to climb a specified upright object; the focus is on the patient-object being climbed. Kayatom nan ba-at ta alam nadan nal-um an bungana. Climb the guava-tree and get the ripe fruit. on/in . 2.2trans. to climb an upright object, carrying something; the focus is the conveyed object being carried. Ikayat mu nan basket ta pangiha-adan yuh polagon yu. Climb up with the basket and load it with the fruits you gather. i/iN .
kay-ahan (comp. of anhan) advpred. an expression indicating that someone feels relief about the end of something that has taken a long time. Kay-ahan ya magibbu dan iskul. Finally, they will finish their studies. Nabayagak an nunho-ho-od ot innang an eyak ume, mu kay-ahan ya immali. I waited a long time and almost left but he finally came. Anusam, kay-ahan ya pumhod ka kaya. You must endure, finally (soon) you will surely get well. Modality. (sem. domains: 3.4.1 - Feel good.)
Kay-ang prop. place where first people lived; by the riverside of what is now called the Ibulao River. [Based on myth of the first people.] (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.) Story recorded by Lourdes S. Dulawan
kaynit 1intrans. to be startled by someone or something with a component of fear or alarm. Adika kumaynit hi pangngolam hi palattug. Don’t be startled upon hearing a shot. Kimmaynit handi nag-a nan banga. He was startled when the pot fell. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . Sim: bugtak, togna. (sem. domains: 3.4.1.3 - Surprise.) 2caus. to cause someone or something to be startled. Pakaynitom nan ahu ta bumtik. Startle the dog so that it will run away. Impakaynit dakami. He caused us to be startled. paka‑ ‑on, impa‑.
kayngot 1intrans. a facial expression of firm lips along with the gesture of nodding the head from time to time that gives authority to speech. Nadan udum an mungkaykayngot an kumali ya dakdakol di mundongol ke dida. Those people who speak very authoritatively have more people who will listen to them. Nakayngot di pungkalina. His speaking is authoritative. muN‑/nuN‑, na‑. 1A Movement with a manner component. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.) 2trans. to give a signal to a previous agreement by nodding of head. Kinayngotanak an ume kami mo. He signaled to me by nodding his head that it was time to leave. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
kayu pers. you plural; second person, plural, Set 2 subject pronouns; cross-referenced by verbal affixes. Ume kayu nah payo an mangdut. You all go to the ricefield and gather snails. “Bumangun kayu mon iimbabalek, kanan inada. “Wake up, children,” their mother said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
kayutyut comm. creases in skin; wrinkles; a frown. (sem. domains: 2.1.4 - Skin.)
ke₁ (deke) conj. 1if; marks a conditional clause, hypothetical or real. Maid ke hi Juan ya uggeyak immali. If Juan had not been around I would not have come here. Athidi bon mundogo ke ya adi pakaihwang hi adol na te maid moy innunan mumbaki. Also, if he gets sick then no one will do the pagan prayer for him. Wada ke ot di pihhu yu ya balalan yu nan payo da. If only you had money then you could take the mortgage of their field. Subordinating conjunctions. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) 2follows a predicate and marks a time phrase or clause. <The allomorph y of the linker di is an enclitic.> Wada key dinatngan da, lingngo da ta potnon da. When they find a satisfactory tree, they fell it and remove the parts not needed. Mala-u key duwan hinlingguwan ya damanan hiitom nan baya ta inumon taku! After about two weeks, pour out the wine from the jar and we’ll drink with you. 3when; marks a time clause. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. Nagibbu ke nan kapkapyan di hagabi, kalyon day algoh pangihakyatan da. When the hagabi-bench is completed, they say the day that it will be brought home. (sem. domains: 9.2.5.2 - Clause conjunctions.)
ke₂ adjunct. occurs within an NP encoding a contrastive concept, setting apart the reference of that person or thing from other possible references. Hanada ken maid di happiyo na, nangapya da. As for them, they had no shields so they made them. Ad Makati ke ya hituy kad-an di kakadangyan. In Makati is where the rich people are. Nahdom ke ya ahi naukat ta tumanayyapan. It is at night that it comes out and flies around. Hi ke Butale ya binugtung an imbabale. As for Butale, he was an only child. Attitudinal. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2.3 - Different, 9.6.3.2 - Markers of emphasis.) hantu ken comp. man-uke
ke₃ det. a determiner that marks an indirect object that is not cross-referenced by the verb. the form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form. <The form ‘ke’ has an allomorph form, the ‘n’ attached to a preceding word that ends in a vowel. > Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilana ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. Indani udot ya wada on tagun nanibon hiya ot baddanganan ianamut hi nunhituwan mid Longnga. Fortunately, a man was passing by and saw him and brought him to our house in Longnga. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.) der. n
ke dadiye (n. ph. of dadiye) dem. those; the plural form of kediye, a member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Lintunan am-in di bittuwon an hay udum ke dadiye ya Bear, Orion, Pleiades takon nadan bittuwon wadah nangappit hi south di kabunyan. (Job 9:9) He created all the stars, some of those are Bear, Orion, Pleiades even those stars that are in the southern direction of the sky. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke dakami (n. ph. of dakami) pers. us; first person, plural exclusive; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n must co-occur.> Makulug, ina. Tinibo mi. Nakihummangan pay ke dakami, kanak. “It’s true, mother! I saw her. She even talked to us,” I said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke dakayu (n. ph. of dakayu) pers. you, plural; second person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> “Ot nganney inat nan dakayu?” kanan ina. “Then what did she do to you?” mother said. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke danae (n. ph. of danae) dem. those; the plural form of the kenae member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Ya ammunay linalakin mangan ke danae. (Numbers 18:10b) Only men can eat those things. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke datuwe (n. ph. of datuwe) dem. these; the plural form of the ketuwe member of Set 5 demonstrative pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Ammunah APU DIOS an damanan mangat ke datuwe. (Isaiah 40:12e) It is only God who is able to do these things. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke dida (n. ph. of dida) pers. them; third person, plural pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Himmawwang nadan tatagun e manggop ke dida ot pumpate da dida. The raiding people came out and started to attack them to kill them. Kinalinan diday aton da ot un-unudon da. He told them what to do and they followed it. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke dita (n. ph. of dita) pers. us-two; first person, dual pronoun, member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke ditaku (n. ph. of ditaku) pers. us-all; first person, plural inclusive; member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; non-cross-referenced by verbal affixes. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Idat nan ditaku kanu nan ohan babuy. According to him, he is giving us a pig. Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke ha-on (n. ph. of ha-on) pers. me; first person, singular personal pronoun; a member of Set 4 direct and indirect object pronouns; the members of this objective set are not cross-referenced by the verbal affix. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Kalyom ke hiyan nangamung ak an mumbayad ya ipainilam ke ha-on. Tell him that I will pay it back and he should let me know. Dahdi nan kimmalin ha-on? Who was that who talked to/called me? (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
ke he-a (n. ph. of he-a) pers. you, singular; second person, singular pronoun; member of Set 4 direct or indirect object pronouns; the members of this objective set are not cross-referenced by the verbal affix. <The determiner ke or its allomorph n that attaches to a preceding word that ends in a vowel must co-occur.> Duntukon daka hin adika ume nah nangitud-akak ke he-a. I will sock you if you will not go to where I sent you. Hay oha bo ya nomnomom an ongal di baddang Apu Dios ke he-a ot maischolar ka. Another thing is, remember that God helped you greatly to become a scholar. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)