Tuwali Ifugao - English


k


kahin- mod. this prefix encodes an unexpected or unacceptable action. Kudukdulnay gibbuwon di inlappun ngunu mu nan eta bo kahinlappuh oha. It is better to finish work that has been started then to start something else. Deket natu-iy baka weno kabayun di hinag-on yu nah dalan ya adi kayu kahin-ang-ang hi hinnatkon an kay hanan uggeyu tinibo. If the cow or horse of your neighbor falls over on the trail, don’t look at something different as though you didn’t see that.
kahiN- -on mod. this modal circumfix adds the concept of pretense to a verb. Kahinhuyhuyopona pangalinat ha-oy di manaang. He pretended to be sleeping, hoping that I’ll be the one to cook. Deke bo udot ya kahinlullokon da ot inila takun adida unudon intugun taku. If they keep pretending to be deaf, then, we know that they will not follow what we advised. Kahindongdongollona hi kinalik. He pretends to be hearing what I said. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
kahing trans. to reject; to oppose; to disobey. Kumahing kan am-in hi planuk. You oppose all of my plans. Adim kahingon di itugun di aammod mu. Don’t reject your parents’ advice. ‑on/‑in‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 4B Tactile - Touch. Sim: ngohe. (sem. domains: 4.5.4.2 - Disobey.)
kahodol (der. of hodol) nom. measure of dimension; refers to the thickness of an object. Nan kahodol nay numpaipot. It’s the thickness that made it tight. (sem. domains: 8.2.3 - Thick.)
kahon 1comm. wooden box; crate. Ipal-um mu nan balat nah kahon. Ripen the bananas in the wooden box. Ihaad mu nan ukkon nah kahon. Place the puppy inside the wooden box. Sim: kaban. (sem. domains: 6.7.7 - Container.) 2trans. to place in a box. Nikahon nan impaalin tulang ku yaden binukatan yu pay. The one sent by my sister was placed in a box and yet you still opened it. Pun-ikahon yu datuwe ta ahi taku munlugan. Put these in boxes before we ride. Dahdi boy nangikahon an uggek binilang. Who again put it in the box when I did not count it? Naane bulwatim te ingkahon mu nabayag. Your clothes have been eaten by termites because they have been in a box for a long time. i‑/iN‑, mi‑/ni‑, puN‑ i‑, mangi‑/nangi‑. 3A Move and position at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.6 - Put in.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: caja. der. kinahon
kahoy comm. cassava; manioc. Nunhibak kayuh kahoy? Were you able to boil cassava? Sim: gatawwa. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
kahuyopan (der. of huyop) nom. sleeping place; a bed. Maid di kahuyopan yuh tu. You have no sleeping place here. ka‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 5.1.1.3 - Bed, 5.7 - Sleep.)
ka- CV- this prefix combination encodes the tendency to become the characteristic expressed in the root or the tendency to go through a process. Katatakut pay an e bumah-el te dakol di talak an muntutun-ud. It is even dangerous (frightening) to cross the street since there are many buses lined up one after the other. Kapupuhik nan basu. That cup is breakable (easily broken). (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
ka- CV(C)CV- comm. this affix combination inflects nouns with the meaning of each and every referent of the noun undergoes the action of the verb. Kaalgoalgo on umeh di. Every day he goes there. Kabulabulan an umali da. They come every month. Kabigabigat on imme da nah Templo ya hi kabalebale an e muntuttuduh mipanggep ke Jesus an hiyah Kriston mangipaptok hi tagu. (Acts 5:42) Every day they go to the Temple and from house to house to teach about Jesus who is the Christ who cares for people. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.2 - Noun affixes.)
ka- -an₁ nominalizer. this circumfix derives a noun from a verb. Hituwen makalin hagabi di katbalan di tagu peman This so-called prestige feast ‘hagabi’ entitles a man to due respect by his co-villagers Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. Dakol di tatagun umed Manila Bay ten himbatangan te da tibon nan kalimuhan nan algo. Many people go to Manila Bay in the afternoon because they go to see the setting of the sun. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.3 - Derivational affixes.)
ka- -an₂ mod. this circumfix derives a superative adjective; greatest degree of modification. Hiyay nangalah kadukkayan an kawayan. He is the one who got the longest bamboo. (sem. domains: 9.3.1.3 - To a larger degree.)
ka- -inn- mod. 1this circumfix encodes the modal concept of something that can be easily done; facility; describes the state or condition of something that facilitates an action or process. Kadinnaddag tun payung te nalakay nangatang ku. This umbrella is easily destroyed because I bought it for a low price. Kaginnabyon nan luta. That soil can be easily hoed. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2encodes the modal concept of someone who has a tendency toward emotional or physical affects. Kabinnungot hi amana ten nabutong. His father tends to be angry when he is drunk. Kadinnoggoh inana. Her mother tends to be sickly.
ka-ka-iw (infl. of kaiw) comm. bush or small tree. Dakol di ka-ka-iw nah muyung. There are plenty of bushes in the forest. (sem. domains: 1.5.2 - Bush, shrub.)
ka-ok 1sta. to be asleep. Ume kamin e nangihid-ip ke hiya ya naka-ok. We went to see him and he was fast asleep. Naka-ok ka nin te uggem dingngol nan kalik. Maybe you had fallen asleep because you did not hear my voice. Mungka-ok ot ahik tayanan. He was almost asleep when I left him. ma‑/na‑. 6A Physiological Process-State. Sim: huyop, yongyong. (sem. domains: 5.7 - Sleep.) 2nom. bed; sleeping place. Nah dulung di ka-okan taku. We will sleep on the floor. ‑an.
ka-ut 1to dig. 1.1trans. to dig a hole. Ka-utan yu nah daul di mangga. Dig a hole below the mango tree. Mange kamid Lagawe ya pungka-utan da hanadan kanal an dalanon di liting. We were going to Lagawe and they were digging the canals for the water to pass. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, puN‑ ‑an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.6 - Dig.) 1.2trans. the activity or act of digging is in view. Mungka-ut da nadan tatagu hi balituk. The people are digging for gold. Kimma-ut dah uwang nah gawwan di dola da. They dug a hole in the middle of their yard. muN‑/nuN‑, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.3pass. for something to be dug up or a hole to be dug. Naka-utan nan balituk ad Hungduwan handih mo tuwali ot ahi kayu umeh di. The gold at Hungduan had been dug up long before you went there. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an. 2trans. to dig a hole to bury an animal. Ingka-ut mi hanan ahum an nate. We buried your dog that died. i‑/iN‑.
kail trans. to ferment rice. Ikail muy tulun talub nah dayakkot. Ferment three gantas of the glutinous rice. Kailam nan buhin da apum. Ferment rice in the wine-jar of your grandfather. Mungkail ka ta ahi inumon nadan mun-ani. Ferment rice so that the harvesters will have something to drink. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, muN‑/nuN‑. 3I Direct action toward object. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.6 - Beverage.)
kaina (sp. var. of kal-ina)
kainadi (sp. var. of kal-inadi) adv. suddenly, without warning.
kaingngo (der. of ingngo) trans. to resemble; to look the same. Kaing-ingon nan sweter mu nan sweter ku. Your sweater looks like mine. ka‑ ‑on. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.2 - Compare.)
kait trans. to dip out solid things from liquid. Kaitom nan ihda ta appilom nan danum na. You dip out the pieces and separate the broth. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.3.2.7 - Take something out of something.)
kait-itayan (infl. of ittay) adj. to be the smallest in a comparison; superlative small. Nan babuy Juan di kait-itayan. John’s pig is the smallest. Size quantifier. (sem. domains: 8.2.1 - Small.)
kaittay (der. of ittay) refers to the time of life when one is young; childhood; youth. Handih kaittay ku ya dakol di istolyan di aammod ya nadan umalih bale. When I was small, the older folks and those who came to our house told many stories. (sem. domains: 8.4.1 - Period of time.)
kaiw 1comm. the generic word for tree. Muntanom kah kaiw ta waday ahim kaiwon. Plant trees so you’ll have something to get for firewood. Mihmihdi nah munhihilong ya nah kakaiw an dakol di hapang nan mahdol di tubuna. It stays in dark places or in trees with thick, leafy branches. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.) 2comm. refers to wood which has been logged. Waday tendaan di bulwati, apatut, makan, kaiw ya gumok. There are stores for clothes, shoes, food, lumber and hardware. Damanan udman di hukbung na ta humdol ne gat-unam hi kaiw Then, put something slightly heavy like a piece of wood, (sem. domains: 6.2.5.4 - Plant product.) 3sta. to be wooded; refers to a forested area; may also refer to the western part of Kiangan, the Tinoc area. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place. i‑ ma‑. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.6 - Forest, grassland, desert.) der. kaiwon der. mangaiw infl. ka-ka-iw
kaiwon (der. of kaiw) trans. to get firewood; to log trees, particularly for firewood. Em kaiwon nan akasya nah tap-on di habal. Go and log the acacia-tree above the swidden plot for firewood. Muntanom kah kaiw ta waday ahim kaiwon. Plant trees so you’ll have something to get/log for firewood. ‑on/‑in‑. 4C Convey/bring objects toward agent. (sem. domains: 7.4.3 - Get.)
kakao (sp. var. of kakaw)