Tuwali Ifugao - English


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impakaiC1- this affix combination is an intensifying modal; when affixed to Class 3 transitive verbs, it intensifies the action encoded in the root; past tense. <The C1 geminate is not always pronounced or written.> Hanan tagun mangngol hi kalik ya un-unudona ya miingngo nah nanomnoman an tagun nangapyah balenan impakaihammad nay tukud na. (Mateo 7:24) The person who hears what I say and follows it can be compared to the intelligent person who has built his house and strongly stabilized its posts. Sim: pakaiC1-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
impaki- TACR. this prefix encodes past tense and a participatory concept; it cross-references the object and encodes an inclusive meaning of all or a group of objects. Impakidawat na nan papel nah basket. He received the paper inside the basket with the other. Impakiala da am-in nadan ngunut da ya limmu da. They got all of their household items and their property. Sim: paki-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
impaN- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root; co-occurs with Class 4 and 5 verbal roots. <The use of this prefix is related to syntactic structure that has a topicalized constituent. > Hanadan u-ungan impanaptok ku ya mangohe dan ha-on. (Isaiah 1:2b) The children that I have cared for are rebelling against me. Man-uket makakkahlu kamin mangitaniuttuduh mipanggep ke Kristo ya gapuh impaminhod nan ditaku. (2 Corinth 5:14a) The reason that we are so very industrious to constantly teach about Christ is because of his love for us. Sim: impangi-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
impangi- nominalizer. this prefix encodes past tense and functions to nominalize the verbal root. Ahina bo ipainilay makulug an impangi-en di hin-oh-an ditaku, takon nadan ugge nainilan inat taku ya nadan wada nomnom taku. (1 Corinth 4:5b) He will cause to be known the truth about the way of each one of us, even what is not known about what we have done and thought about doing. Sim: impaN-, pangi-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
impangulu (der. of pangulu) trans. to go before others; go first and lead others. Impangulu dakayun Apu Dios an tumayan ad Egypt. (Deuteronomy 4:20) God led you when you left Egypt. (refers to God leading the Israelites). Hay mabungot an tagu ya haulonay hinag-onat ipangulu nan mangat hi gaga-iho. (Proverbs 16:29) As for a violent person, he will deceive his neighbor and he will lead him to do bad things. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 7.3.3 - Take somewhere.)
impi- (sp. var. of impa- This variant of the prefix impa- co-occurs with roots that have the vowel ‘a’ in the first syllable.) caus. this prefix encodes past tense and a causative concept. Indani ya impiayag ama hi Jose. After awhile, father had someone call Jose. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
impierno comm. hell; Hades. Gaga-iho key at-attom ya ume kad impierno. You’ll go to hell if you keep doing evil. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: infierno.
impoltante (sp. var. of importante) important.
importante (sp. var. impoltante) 1advpred. important. Importante an eka bumotos. It is important that you go out and vote. Importante tun ayak ad Lagawe. My going to Lagawe is important. Ya adim kal-iwan an hay importanten punggastuwam ya nadan liblum And don’t forget that the most important thing is to spend money on your books. Evaluative. Sim: mahapul, kinwani. 2trans. to make important. Adika mumpaimportante hin ume taku hi balen tulang mu. Do not make yourself important when we go to your sibling’s house. mumpa‑/numpa‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
impuN- TACR. past tense form of prefix puN-, punctiliar aspect, agreement with indirect object instrument. Ot hay inat ku ya impun-almas ku nadan tataguh ispada, pahul ya pana...(Nehemiah 4:13a) And so what I did was I armed the people with swords, spears and arrows... (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
impuN-- caus. this prefix is used for indicating that there is a causative agent involved in the action though it cross-references the agent who is the one performing the action. Impunggaud na hi Pedro. He had Pedro spade. Impuntanom nah ina hi bulhe. He had mother plant beans. Sim: puN- -on, pun-i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.)
imuk 1comm. gnat, loves to enter the eyes. Dakol di imuk an tumanayapan. There are many gnats flying around. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.7 - Insect.) 2sta. to have gnats in or on something. Naimukan nan matan nan golang. Gnats entered the eyes of the child. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.
imut 1sta. to be selfish with one’s possessions; characterizes one who is unwilling to share; to be stingy. Naimut da tuwalin hintutulang. They really are all selfish, those brothers and sisters. ma‑/na‑. 6B Characteristics of human nature or life situation. Sim: ikut, uku. (sem. domains: 4.3.4.4.1 - Selfish.) 2trans. to be unwilling to share with someone in particular. <The affix cross-references the person with whom there is an unwillingness to share.> Adim imutan nan ibam. Do not be stingy with your brother. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
iN- TACR. 1this prefix encodes past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role; it is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Inha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They placed the basket in our house. Sim: i-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. In-alik nan liblum. I brought your book. 3this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross-references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Indikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He used the sharp ax to split wood. 4this prefix encodes past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Initpol nay takut nan kananah nomnom nay kapyana nin. He endured/controlled his fear and thought maybe that’s just its nature. Indalan da Bugan nah papayo. Bugan and her mother walked through the ricefields. 5this prefix encodes past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Intuluy nan mangan inggana nabhug. He continued to eat until he was satisfied. Intikod nan muntugal te binungotan ama na. He stopped gambling because his father scolded him. 6this prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. In-akbut na nan bulwati na. He backpacked his clothes. 7this prefix encodes past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross references the object that refers to what is said. “Mapopotangan ka ya abuh di,” inhumang amana. You will just be standing in the sun,” answered his father. Inun-unud day imbagan Pablo ot ahi pumhod nan unga. They did what Pablo told them and the child got well.
in’ah comm. hen. Pinaltimi nan inah. We butchered the hen. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.2 - Bird.)
ina₁ intrans. to do something habitually or often. Immina ka on indaw-em tuh ibam. You often (habitually) hurt your sister. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 8.4.3 - Indefinite time.) umina
ina₂ comm. 1female biological parent; mother. Deyah inam an mangali. Look there, your mother is coming. Syn: mama. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.2 - Father, mother.) 2respectful form of address for any female of mother’s generation; auntie. Ina, an ume kayuh payo? Auntie, are you going to the ricefield? (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.6 - Uncle, aunt.) der. ina-om der. ina-on der. inaon der. in-ina der. mungka-in-ina der. nain-ina der. naka-in-ina
ina₃ (sp. var. inah) intrans. 1(prim) to get up from a lying or sitting position; to arise; to stand up. Umina ka ni-an ta guyudok tun ubunam. Please get up so that I can move your seat. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2B Change of position. (sem. domains: 7.2.2 - Move in a direction.) 2(sec) to recover from illness; to get well. Tipet nabayag hi inam hi hospital ya ugge pay immina. Why is it that your mother was in the hospital for a long while and she has not yet recovered. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy.)
inabol comm. a native loom-woven skirt. Maphod nan inabol Matima. The skirt of Matima looks nice. Sim: dinabol, gam’it, ampuyo, intinlu, ginalit, ginaletget. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.)
inadipan comm. fetus; lit. what is being born. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Matibo moy inadipana. Her being pregnant can be seen. (sem. domains: 2.6.3.2 - Fetus.)
inado (der. of ado) comm. mulch mounds of grass and mud at the side of a rice paddy on which vegetables are planted; made a couple of months after harvest during the field fallow season. Intanom kuy kolet nah inado. I planted cabbage on the paddy-mound Tanmam nan inado hi buttata. Plant the paddy-mounds with pechay. Sim: pingkol. (sem. domains: 6.2.9 - Farmland.)
inadu 1comm. a ladle to dish out rice; thin, long and flat. Ulaham nan inadu ta mun-akud ka. Wash the ladle and scoop out the rice. Odnam di inaduh winawwan mu. Hold the ladle with your right hand. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to use a ladle to serve food. Aduwon nan gattuk Ladle/serve the sweet potato. ‑on/‑in‑.
inah (sp. var. of ina) intrans. 1) to get up to go do something. Imminahak ot mibangngadak nah ngunuk. I got up and returned to my work. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2) to recover from illness.
ina-om (der. of ina) nom. parent-in-law of either gender. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.2 - Related by marriage.)
ina-on (der. of ina) nom. refers to the female sibling of either parent; aunt. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1 - Related by birth.)