Tuwali Ifugao - English


d


dayyad-a (sp. var. of dayad-a)
dayyakot (sp. var. dayakkot) comm. a rice variety that is soft. [This rice variety is sometimes mixed with other rice for flavor, but also used to make what is known as sticky rice; sticky rice is sweetened, formed and placed in folded banana leaves; often served at harvest time.] Naken ahibakle ya dakol day umalin bumaddang an mumbayu nan dayyakot. During thanksgiving, many come to help in pounding the sticky-rice. gen: bog’a.
dayyu 1intrans. to move in a downward direction; walking or riding down an incline; descend; go down, walk down a mountain or hillside. Dumayyu ka keh tu ta waday ibagak. Come down here (lit. descend) and I will ask you something. Dumayyu kad Pindongan ta em tibon hi Dulyaggan. Come down to Pindongan so that you will go to see Dulyaggan. Mundayyu kat ume kah bale da ta em ayagan hi Kabbigat ta pumbaddang kun mangilagim tuh babuy. Go down (lit. descend), to their house and call for Kabbigat so that I will have someone to help me singe the pig. Indai ot dongdonglona, mundayyu dah wa-el nan ho kali ya- ne kinimit na. Later on, as he was hearing, they were going down to the creek and then he closed his eyes. muN‑/nuN, ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 1B Movement with a directional component. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.5 - Move down.) 2sta. to be sloping, a path or road, descending toward a destination. Madayyu nan dalan an umeh baleda. The path going to their house is sloping. Ya mumpadayyuy ohat mumpaed Kiangan. And one pathway goes down towards Kiangan. ma‑. 3to descend with the path or site in view. 3.1trans. the direct object refers to a specific path or something along the path. Dayyuwon yu nan madopla ta ahi kayu dumatong. You’ll go down/descend the cliff before arriving. ‑on/‑in; dayyuwon. 3.2trans. the direct object refers to a specific site for starting the descent Hidiy dayyuwan yu. There (is the place) where you will go down. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 3.3trans. the direct object refers to an object along the path of descent. Idayyu yu nah kad-an di mangga. You’ll go down/descend where the mango tree is. i‑/iN‑.
dayyukung sta. 1to be concave, a part of a curve; particularly refers to a landscape or a road. Hay kad-an nan payo da ya nah nadayyukung. Their field is in the curve of the road. ma‑/na‑. 6D Descriptives. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.6.1 - Concave.) 2to be a valley; refers to the hollow place between mountain ridges. (sem. domains: 1.2.1.4 - Valley.)
de (sp. var. de-; sp. var. deh) adjunct. expression of pointing out; There!; See there, may be reinforced with ya. [Expression adjunct that calls the attention of someone to a certain situation and particularly used in cases where there has been a contraindication.] De, immali ka. There, so you came. De kayu mampen na-ala ya pun-ibtik yu nan balat na. There, you are thoughtless, you’re just running away with his bananas. Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.) comp. dehdi comp. dehna comp. dehtu comp. deman comp. deya ph. v. dedah di ph. v. dedah tu
dedah di (ph. v. of de, da, hidi) demonstrative predicate. predicates the place where people or things are; the demonstrative refers to shared information; see, they are there. <The plural form da is one of the components of the phrase.> Ingganad uwani ya dedah di. Until now, they are there. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
dedah tu (ph. v. of de, da, hitu) demonstrative predicate. predicates the place where people or things are; see, they are here. Ya hanada ken imbabalek ya dedah tu. As for my children, they are here. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
dede 1intrans. to level out rice pond with feet; to trample rice pond mud to fill holes or cracks so that water is retained. [This is done when carabao are not available.] Mundede da nadan tatagu. The people are leveling the field with their feet. muN‑/nuN‑. Sim: kiblu, daya. (sem. domains: 6.2.2 - Land preparation.) 2trans. to level the soil in a particular area by trampling with feet. Idedem nan binangbang mu. You level out what you have dug. i‑/iN‑.
dedede adjunct. expression of appreciation for a gift or expression of approval for something that has been said. Mundedede handi indatan dah mom-ona. He said oh, good when they gave him some betelnut-chew ingredients. muN‑. Interpersonal. (sem. domains: 3.5.1.7.1 - Thank.)
dee (sp. var. of die) sta. to be urinating frequently. Nadee nan golang te intaganah inum hi liting. The child is always urinating because he kept on drinking water. (sem. domains: 2.5 - Healthy.)
deh (sp. var. of de) dem. see there! an expression that draws attention to something that is seen or said. Hiya an madle an deh conbento. She is a nun there in the convent. {col}
dehdi (comp. of de, hidi) demonstrative predicate. see there; predicates the existence of someone or something there, away from both listener and speaker. Dehdi nan manuk nah kubi. The chicken is over there in the chicken coop. Sim: deyahdi. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) comp. dehdida
dehdida (comp. of dehdi, da) demonstrative predicate. see, they are there; a compound that predicates and refers to things that are far from speaker and hearer. Ot ingganad uwani ya dehdida. Until today, they are there. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
dehna (comp. of de, hina) demonstrative predicate. there is; predicates the existence of someone or something there, by you (the listener). Dehnan nah indoggan mu nan uwa. The knife is there at your back. Sim: deyahna. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
dehtu (comp. of de, hitu) demonstrative predicate. here is; predicates the existence of something or someone here by me (the speaker). Dehtu nan punhamak ku. Here is the thing I’m looking for. Sim: deyahtu. (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.)
de- (sp. var. of de)
de-an (sp. var. de-ka) adjunct. expression pointing out wrong; Hey! [This is said when someone has done something wrong making him afraid and aware that what he has done is known.] De-an ka! Antipet em inala nan pihhun ina? Hey you! Why did you get mother’s money? Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)
de-ka (sp. var. of de-an) adjunct. expression pointing out wrong; Hey!
deke ( ke shortened from) conj. if; a conjunction that connects a dependent conditional clause to a main clause that may encode a means for fulfilling the condition, a result of the likely fulfillment or a purpose for fulfilling the condition. Deke nin mate amam, nganney atom? If it should be that your father will die, what will you do? [The conjunction co-occurs with a number of other conjunctions and adjuncts; additional meaning is added with each of these co-occurring forms.](sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) (comp. deke on comp. deke pe nin ta comp. deke ya comp. deket)
deke bo udot conj. if; marks a dependent conditional clause expressing a continuing situation or action that will probably result in the situation or action expressed in the main clause; the udot form adds a sense of perplexity to the meaning. <This is a phrasal compound of a conjunction deke, an adverb bo and an adjunct udot.> Deke bo udot ya kahinlullokon da ot inila takun adida unudon intugun taku. If they keep pretending to be deaf, then, we know that they will not follow what we advised. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. Sim: deke on peman. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations, 9.6.2.8 - Condition.)
deke on (comp. of deke, on) conj. marks an event or action that is contingent or dependent on another action or event. <This is a compound of the conjunction deke and the linker-determiner on.> Ya initpoitpol kuy potang nah mapat-al ya kotol nah hilong ya deket on matukatukalak. I have endured the heat of the sunshine, the cold at night and whenever I have been staying awake. Bokon ha-on nan tagun deke on bumtik ta e mitalu. I am not the kind of person to run away in order to be hidden. Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations, 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) comp. deke on peman
deke on peman (comp. of deke on, peman) conj. affirms that an event or action is contingent or dependent on another action or event; the phrase has an added emphatic meaning component with the addition of peman. <This is a compound of a conjunction, linker-determiner, and an adjunct.> Compounding conjunctions and adjuncts. Sim: deke bo udot. (sem. domains: 9.6.2 - Dependency relations.)
deke pe nin ta (comp. of deke, pe, nin, ta The conjunction links a statement of means with a statement of purpose.) advpred. predicates a probable hypothesis; if it should be that; should it happen that; supposing. <This is a phrasal compound of two conjunctions, deke and ta, and two adjuncts pe and nin.> Deke pe nin ta mateh amam, nganney atom? If it should be that your father dies, what will you do? Deke pe nin ta umali da, nganney atom? If it should be that they come, what will you do? Modality. Sim: nungay.
deke ya (comp. of deke, ya) conj. if possible or willing. <This is a compound of a conjunction and linker.> Deke ya immali ka. You come if you can. Compounding conjunctions.
deket (comp. of deke, ta The conjunction links a statement of means with a statement of purpose.) conj. 1if; a conjunction that connects a dependent clause expressing a condition with a main clause expressing a purpose or circumstance; if it is so, then. <This is a compound of two conjunctions.> Toan ten makulug, mu deket makulug, ikabing mu anhan tun tugun ku. Whether or not this is true, I don’t know, but if it is, then, heed my advice. Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan If you are hungry, there are a lot of eating places. Deket adim pinhod an madistorbo nah hilong ya buhugom. If you don’t want to be disturbed at night, you feed him well. Compounding conjunctions. Sim: hin, konnat, nu. (sem. domains: 9.6.2.8 - Condition.) 2when; a conjunction that connects a dependent time clause to the main clause that encodes an action, activity or process. Deket e man-aladuh Francis on ahina mahapul nan pungkawad na. When Francis goes to plow, that is when he needs the chain. (sem. domains: 8.4.5 - Relative time.)