Dictionary Entries Explained

1.0 Entry Types

Morphemes are the smallest meaningful grammatical unit in Tuwali Ifugao. There are five classes of morphemes that are treated as lexeme entries in the dictionary: words, roots, affixes, reduplicants, and geminates. In these explanatory notes related to the use of the dictionary, the meaningful grammatical units will be called “lexemes” or “forms”, while in the Grammar Sketch, the same units will be called “morphemes”; the word “form” is also used in some descriptions in the Grammar Sketch.

1.1 Single word entries

Single word entries are of two types: major entries and sub-entries.

  • Major entries consist of nouns, e.g. tagu ‘person’; adjectives, e.g. am-in ‘all’; pronouns, e.g. kami ‘we’; demonstratives, e.g. hanada ‘those’; determiners, e.g. nan ‘the’; adjuncts, e.g. tuwali ‘actually’ and conjunctions, e.g. te ‘because’. None of these forms require affixation, though nouns and adjectives can occur with affixation.
  • Sub-entries consist of roots or words with affixation and compounds, e.g. bangngad ‘to return’ + muN- → mumbangngad ‘will return’, gulun ‘grass’ + ma- → magulun ‘grassy area’. Compounds may consist of two or more words and may be written together or separately, e.g. pe ‘mitigating adjunct’ + man ‘certainly’ → peman ‘certainly, less assertive’; man tuwali ot ‘true without a doubt’.

1.2 Multiple word entries

Multiple word entries are of two types: noun phrases and idioms. Both types are sub-entries.

  • Noun phrases primarily consist of a determiner and a noun head, e.g. hi ohhandi ‘day after tomorrow’.
  • Idioms are groups of words that mean something different than the sum total of their parts, e.g. malumii di kali na ‘he is persuasive (lit. his speech is sweet)’.

1.3 Roots

Roots are major entries of forms that require affixation. These are largely verbal root entries, e.g. baddang ‘to help’, kapya ‘to make something’.

1.4 Affixes

Affixes are major entries.

  • Prefixes occur preceding a root or word, e.g. i-iha-ad ‘will place something’.
  • Infixes occur within a root, e.g. -in- → kinapya ‘made something’.
  • Suffixes occur following a root, e.g. -on → kapyaon ‘will make something’.
  • Circumfixes have co-occurring prefixes and suffixes or co-occurring infixes and suffixes, e.g. -in- -an → dinayahan ‘leveled ground’; each circumfix functions as a single meaningful grammatical morpheme.

1.5 Reduplicants

Reduplicants are major entries showing the forms that are meaningful copies of syllable patterns of roots and words.

  • Syllable 1 reduplicant CV or CVC, e.g. nunhamul ‘feasted‘ + CV → nunhahamul ‘continually feasted’
  • Syllable 1 and the first consonant and vowel of the second syllable reduplicant, e.g. matukal ‘staying awake’ + CV(C).CV + matukatukal ‘staying awake constantly’

1.6 Geminates

Geminates are the forms that result from a gemination process. The process copies one of the consonants of a root. There are three geminate entries: C1 is the entry form standing for the copying of the first consonant of a root. C2 is the entry form standing for the copying of the medial consonant of a root. C3 is the entry form standing for the copying of the final consonant of a root.

  • C1 bilang ‘count’ + pakaiC1 → pakaibbilang ‘count something very well’
  • C2 adug ‘guard’ + pakaC2- -an → pakaaddugan ‘guard something very well’
  • C3 dadag ‘destroy’ + pakaC3- -on → pakadadaggon ‘totally destroy something’

2.0 Entry Fields

It should be noted that the examples given here to illustrate the description of the entry fields do not have the final formatting that the dictionary will have. They are simply edited copies of the database entries.

2.1 Part of speech

Parts of speech are called lexical categories in the Grammar Sketch. There are six main parts of speech in Tuwali Ifugao: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and conjunctions. Adverbs have one subclass: adjuncts. Pronouns are categorized into three subclasses: personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and interrogative pronouns. Determiners are considered to be a subclass of demonstrative pronouns. Nouns are categorized into two subclasses: common nouns and proper nouns. Verbs are categorized into four subclasses: intransitive verbs, transitive verbs, stative verbs, and process verbs. When affixed, intransitive, and transitive verbs have been further categorized into passive verbs, causative verbs, reflexive verbs, and reciprocal verbs. There are five classes of non-verbal predicates: adjectival, adverbial, demonstrative, existential, and nominal. See 2.3 Word formation processes in the Grammar Sketch for more information regarding lexical categories.

Abbreviations 1


modal category
common noun
demonstrative pronoun
interrogative pronoun


intransitive verb
nominal, derived noun
passive verb
personal pronoun
process verb
proper noun
reciprocal verb
reflexive verb
stative verb
transitive verb

2.3 Sentence examples2

Each sense of a lexical entry has one or more illustrative sentence example(s) and a free English translation.


  • ha-ad 1) to place something. 1.1) trans. to move an object away from agent and place or position it somewhere; to put something at a site. Iha-ad mu nan od-odnam ne immali kah tu. Put down the thing you are holding, then, come here.

2.4 Encyclopedic info

The encyclopedic info field adds additional information related to the meaning of a lexical entry. The information is often cultural, but may also relate to how the word is used. Encyclopedic information is placed in square brackets [ ] within the entry.


  • tatak comm. cicada specie, small, light green, night cicada. [This night species is attracted by light and may enter a house. Traditionally, finding one in the house required a ritual because it was thought to be an omen.] Hinumgop nan tatak hi bale ot dopapon nan imbabalek. The night cicada entered our house and my child caught it.
  • tete 1) comm. ladder. [The traditional Ifugao house was built off the ground so ladders were used to enter and exit.] Onatom nan tete. Pull up the ladder. 2) trans. to place a ladder in order to use it. Itetem ta hunggopak. Place the ladder so that I’ll enter. Kah-in di teteyam nah naakhop ta ahika ume nah atop. You have to place a ladder on the low side before you can go to the roof. Muntete ka hin lumah-un ka. You will use a ladder when you come down.

2.5 Grammar note

The grammar note field contains grammatical information that is helpful in understanding the use of a lexical entry. The grammar notes are placed in angle brackets < >.


  • ta2 pers. 1) we two; first person, dual pronoun; the form is a member of both Set 1 and Set 2. <As a member of both Set 1 and Set 2, the form always encodes subject; however, the affix on the verb disambiguates whether or not the subject is crossreferenced.> Gapu bo ta deh tu ta ya ditan am-in di pangipamdolam hi ngunu. Just because we two are here we are being held responsible for all the work. Maid di ena id-um hi kanomnoman ya mumbalin tan kay hiyyahiyya. Nothing is added to your wisdom and we may become proud and boastful. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 – Pronouns.) 2) our, yours and mine; first person, dual possessive pronoun, i.e. something belongs to the two of us, the speaker and the addressee. Nap-u moy balun ta. Our food is now consumed. comp. eta

2.6 Discourse notes

The discourse notes field contains information about how a lexical entry is used in a context larger than a clause or sentence. The discourse notes are placed in braces { }.


  • adi bo (comp. of adi, bo) neg. negation of an additional statement related to a previous one; also, not this. [The sentence example is one of the 10 commandments in the Bible.] {This phrase is used when there is a series of negated statements in a communicative context.} Adi bo nalgom di pangiusalan yuh ngadan ku. (Deuteronomy 5:11) Also, you must not carelessly use my name. (sem. domains: – No, not.)

2.7 General notes

The general notes field contains cultural information, additional general meaning or use of a lexical entry.


  • ayon-on intrans. 1) rumbling sound of very distant thunder or explosion. Mun-aayonon di kidul handi hilong. The distant thunder could be heard rumbling last night. muN-/nuN-. (sem. domains: – Types of sounds.) 2) to make rumbling noise as of thunder. Mun-aayon-on di luta te hay kidul. There’s a rumbling noise on the earth because of the thunder. general: One speaker suggested that this refers to a kind of silent thunder that seems to affect the earth during the rainy season, July and August. muN-/nuN-.

2.8 Restrictions

The restrictions field contains information regarding the limitations on the use of a lexical entry.


  • alibadbad intrans. wrestling; continuous wrestling without anyone being pinned. Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Mun-alibadbad da mu maid maapput. They were wrestling but not one of them could be defeated. muN-/nuN-. Sim: dopap, hommol; Syn: bultung. (sem. domains: 4.8.2 – Fight.)

2.9 Note: Language of borrowing

The language of borrowing note contains information about the language from which a lexical entry is borrowed.


  • relip comm. refers to used clothing from relief missions. [Although relief missions ended long ago, used clothing is sold in markets and stores. Relatives working overseas often send cartons of such clothing.] Waday igattang dan relip hidih markadu. They have used clothing for sale in the market. (sem. domains: – Relief, 5.3 – Clothing.) Language of Borrowing: English: relief.

2.10 Lexical relations

The lexical relations field lists words that have particular types of semantic or logical relationships with the entry word. There are many possible relationships that the words of a language may have but this dictionary designates only seven: calendar, part-whole, wholepart, similar, specific-generic, generic-specific, and synonym. The similar relation is the one most commonly used in this dictionary. The relation simply indicates that the words listed share some semantic components with the entry word.



  • ablan comm. the loom for weaving; refers to all of the separate pieces. [Formerly, women did a lot of weaving as the grain was ripening so that everyone would have new skirts and loin cloths when people joined together for harvesting and celebrating.] Maid day mun-abol ad uwanin dakol te natalak day ablan. Not many weave today because the looms have been lost. Part: uluwan, lolottan, gul-unnan, baliga, hikittan, kalabig. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 – Working with cloth.)
  • diwol 1) trans. to shake something back and forth horizontally. Idiwol nan gulding nan alad. The goat shook the fence. i-/iN-. 3E Move object directionally. Sim: wat’ang, wagot, wowod. (sem. domains: – Shake, – Move back and forth.) 2) intrans. the shaking of something. Mundiwol tun bale yu. Your house shakes. Dimmiwol nan kaiw ot iang-ang ku ya wada on bulangon. The tree shook and when I looked, there was a monkey. Mundiwwolan nan bale dih kimmolyog. The house was shaking during the earthquake. muN-/nuN- -um-/-imm-, muN- -an.

2.11 Semantic domains

The semantic domains field is used to categorize entries as members of classes of words that refer to interrelated concepts within a cultural or mental network.


  • balbalatuk (sp. var. balbalatok) comm. bird specie, white and brown; like a woodpecker. Linattik na nan balbalatuk nah palayon. He shot the woodpecker in the oak tree with a slingshot. (sem. domains: – Bird.)
  • a-apo 1) comm. a short story, usually sung; may be myths, legends, or folktales. Pinpinhod ku hanan a-apon mipanggep ke Kabbigat. I like the story-song about Kabbigat. Sim: istolya, bida, malamala. (sem. domains: 3.5.4 – Story.) 2) intrans. to tell a story in song. Umbun kat mun-a-apoh apum. You sit down and your grandfather will sing a story-song. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. muN-/nuN-. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 – Say.) 3) trans. to tell a story with the story-object cross-referenced. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming-spirits. i-/iN-. Speech Verb: Purpose is to entertain.
  • uwe1 comm. the ritual for putting on the sides of a native house, done after the basic frame is up. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 – Practice religion.)

2.12 Senses

Lexemes that have more than one meaning, grammatical class, or function will have more than one sense; the senses are numbered. Each sense and sub-sense may have each of the above fields though not all are required. The senses that are formed based on different grammatical classes will have a field showing the affixes that co-occur.


  • uwang 1) comm. an opening in or through something; a hole. Waday uwang nah banga kinali mundagay danum. There’s a hole in the pot; that’s why the water seeps through. Nabituy hukin nan nuwang nah uwang nah pingngit di wangwang. The water buffalo’s leg got stuck in a hole along the riverbank. Sim: lokong, butbut1, abut, gukang2 2) trans. to make holes. Uwangam nadan lata ta tanman tah kolet. Make holes in the cans so that we can plant cabbage in them. Nauwauwangan di dingding mi. Our wall has holes. -an/-in- -an, ma- -an/na- -an. 5B Changing state of site by removal of something. (sem. domains: 7.8.5 – Make hole, opening.)
  • tanom 1) to plant. 1.1) trans. to plant seeds, seedlings, plants. Itanom mu nan kaiw nah kad-an di alad. Plant the tree along the fence. (sem. domains: 6.2 – Agriculture.) i-/iN- 1.2) trans. refers to the specific site of the planting action. Tanomam nan lutam hi kape. Plant your land with coffee. -an/-in- -an 1.3) trans. refers to the activity of planting. Muntanom ka. You plant. (durative activity of planting) Muntanom hi bulhe hi ina. My mother will plant beans. muN-/nuN-

2.13 Stem class

The stem class field will show the categorization of entries into root classes. They are categorized largely on the basis of semantic and functional components. The Grammar Sketch describes and explains the semantic and functional components of each stem class (see 4.1 Verbal root classification).


  • baktad trans. to lie down. Imme an bumaktad te nundogo. She went to lie down because she is sick. -um-/-imm-. 2B Movement, change of position. Sim: bakilang, bakne, puku. (sem. domains: 7.1.3 – Lie down.)
  • ballabag (sp. var. balabag) 1) trans. to place something in a horizontal position, usually a long object. Iballabag mu nan kaiw. Put the wood across it horizontally. Ballabagan yuh kaiw nan kanal. Put a piece of wood across the canal. Waday niballabag dih kalata. There is something placed horizontally across the road. Katibanglan did inballabag da nah uwang. They spanned the hole with a fern tree. i-/iN-, -an/-in- -an, mi-/ni-. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.5.9 – Put.) 2) comm. the crossbars or beams of a building. (sem. domains: 6.5.2 – Parts of a building.)

2.14 Affixation

Affixes are shown as tense sets, e.g. i-/iN-, muN-/nuN-. The first form in each set is the non-past tense form, and the second form following the backslash is the past tense form. When more than one set is shown, the first set is the default set, and the other sets have different morphological or syntactic functions as described and exemplified in the Grammar Sketch (see 2.2 Affixes and 4.2 Infl ectional Affixes). Note that a separate affix field for each sense is provided. The particular affixes listed in each sense affix field are those that denote the modification of the basic semantic components


  • dikhal 1.1) trans. to split wood. Dikhalon yu nan udyo. Split the narra wood. Dinikhal na nan ongal an kaiw. He split the big log. Sim: giha, gihgi, potw’ak1. (sem. domains: 7.8.3 – Cut.) -on/-in- 4A Change structure of object 1.2) trans. to split with a component of manner, place, or instrument in view. Idikhal mu nah dola. Split the wood in the yard. i-/iN- 1.3) trans. to split wood with a durative activity in view. Mundikhal hi Jose hi itungu. Jose is splitting firewood. muN-/nuN- 1.4) trans. to split wood involving a partitive component, i.e. split a limited amount, some. Dumikhal kah itungun da apum. Split some wood for your grandparents’ firewood. -um-/- imm- 1.5) trans. to split wood with the component of contrasting the agent with others. Manikhal ka. You split wood. <Morphophonology: The final consonant of the prefix maN- assimilates to the point of articulation of the initial consonant of the root, and then, reduces that consonant.> maN-/naN- 1.6) trans. to split wood for a beneficiary. Indikhalan Juan nan nain-ina. Juan split wood for the old woman. i- -an/ iN- -an 1.7) pass. refers to wood that will be split or has been split. Nadikhal ke nan kaiw ya mahapul an ihap-e. When the wood is split, we will have to dry it. ma-/na-

2.15 Complex forms and component fields

The complex forms field shows inflected forms, compounds or phrases that are separate entries in the dictionary. The entry forms of the complex forms are shown at the end of the entry (e.g. see ie and imme below). The component field will show the components of a complex entry or the root form. The component or components will be shown immediately following the entry form (see the forms in bold type below).

n ph
noun phrase
v ph
verb phrase


  • e 1) to go. 1.1) intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninfl ected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. -um-/-imm-. (sem. domains: 7.2 – Move.) 1.2) trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i-/iN-. 1.3) trans. the time or place is cross-referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. -um- -an/-imm- -an. 2) intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa-/numpa-. 3) nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN- -an. 4) caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa-/impa-. (sem. domains: – Set free.) infl . ie infl . ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme
  • ie (infl . of e) trans. to take or bring something with oneself. Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. (sem. domains: 7.3.1 – Carry.) i-/iN- 3F Move something along with oneself der. pangieyan
  • imme (id. of e) an idiomatic expression for referring to death (lit. went).
  • paki-ki-ayan (der. of e) trans. to interact with others. paki-ki- -an.