Tuwali Ifugao – English


i


i-₁ TACR. 1this prefix encodes non-past tense, a punctiliar time aspect and cross-references the direct object with the conveyed semantic role. It is a member of the default affix set for Class 3 verbal roots. Iha-ad muh nae hitu. Place that one here. Iha-ad da nan basket hi bale. They will put the basket in our house. Kay anhan ya idatong dah boble ta inay-un dah dolan di himmagabi. Sooner or later, the hagabi-bench will arrive in the village brought by the men and to the yard of the man performing the ceremony. Em iwaklin nan buhi. Put the wine jar in a safe place. Sim: iN-. (sem. domains: 9.2.9.1 - Verb affixes.) 2the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it derives a transitive verb when it co-occurs with Class 1A intransitive movement verbal roots and cross-references an object that moves with the agent, e.g. to bring something or to take something. I-alik nan liblum. I will bring your book. (I will come bringing your book.) 3the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect, and cross references an instrument object with Class 4 verbal roots. Idikhal na nan matadom an wahe. He will use the sharp ax to split wood. Nganney ipalang mu? What will you use to cut with? Inggatang nay payo da ya odon da ta hay ahan itugal na. He sold their ricefields and heirlooms just to have money with which to gamble. 4the prefix encodes non-past tense, punctiliar aspect and expresses a manner component related to the phrase or clause in the direct object NP position of the main clause. Ipdug nay gunggung na. He chases with barking. Adim iploy pangalam hi pencil na. Don’t get his pencil by grabbing. I-ang-ang kuh manayo. I’ll look at the dancers. Kalubam hi daun ya ihamad mu ta maid hunggop hi dibdib. Cover the jar tightly with banana leaves so that no air enters. Namahig di hona da ta ihalhalla day dalan, ihinghingngi day dalan, namam-a ten waday iiban nadan himmagabi nah dalnon da. They go the wrong way, they go out of the way, especially if they know of a relative of the one performing the hagabi-ceremony who lives along the way. 5the prefix encodes non-past tense; co-occurs with a time aspect adverbial predicate and cross-references the clause embedded in the object NP position of the main clause. Ituluy mun mangan inggana mabhug ka. You continue eating until you are satisfied. Itikod mun muntugal an ap-apuk. Stop gambling, grandson. 6the prefix encodes non-past tense, derives a verb from a noun, and the object is usually incorporated though a specific object may be explicit and cross-referenced. Deke bo ta makudang di binokbok na ya madang-o nan hinamal o maid di idanum na. When the binokbok-yeast is insufficient, the rice will either be spoiled (it will not ferment) or it will produce no wine/liquid. Nganney iduyum? What have you placed on your plate (lit. plated)? 7the prefix encodes non-past tense and punctiliar aspect; it co-occurs with speech verbs and cross-references the object that refers to what is said. Mun-ap-apo wak kanu ya- uggek inila nan ia-apok. Aga mot nan bumdang di ia-apok. According to them, I’ll tell a story; oh, I don’t know what to relate. Okay, I’ll tell a story about roaming spirits.
i-₂ mod. this prefix encodes the concept of being from a place or area; generally co-occurs with place names. Imakaiw di aammod na. His parents are from the forested place. (sem. domains: 9.2.9 - Affixes.)
iahin comm. sweet potato variety; small, very sweet kind; native to Tinoc area. Sim: ballaan. (sem. domains: 5.2 - Food.)
iapuy trans. to perform exhumation rites for a dead person’s bones. [The term apuy 'fire' is used because in the old days, individual small fires were built in the yard for lighting and for cooking.] Iapuy dah Tayyaban ad uwani. They are starting the wake for the bones of Tayyaban tonight. Sim: Bogwa. (sem. domains: 4.9.5 - Practice religion, 4.3.9.1 - Custom.)
iba 1relative 1.1comm. sibling or cousin, relative of the same generation. Adugam tun ibam Take care of your brother/sister. Deket kanan nan tagu di humagabi, ipainila na ni-an hi iibana When a man decides to perform the ‘hagabi’, he must first inform all his relatives. Sim: manang, ag’i, tulang, kamang. (sem. domains: 4.1.9.1.3 - Brother, sister.) 1.2n. a companion. 2intrans. to be related. Mun-iba da. They are related. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to be related to someone specific. Da Dulawan di ibaon nad Lagawe. The Dulawans are their relations in Lagawe. ‑on/‑in‑. id. pun-ib-ibat nangamung
ibaga trans. to tell something. Ibagam di makulug. Tell the truth. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.1 - Say.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
ibal intrans. to cry loudly. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.5 - Cry, tear.)
ibaliwon (der. of baliwon) comm. lowlander; refers to someone from the lowlands. Ibaliwon hi inana. His mother is a lowlander. i‑. (sem. domains: 5.9 - Live, stay.)
ibangawan (der. of bango) 1comm. bride; the one whose family receives the bride price. Hi tulang kuy ibangawan da bokon ha-oy. My sister is the bride, not me. (sem. domains: 2.6.1 - Marriage.) 2trans. for the groom’s family to bring the engagement pigs to the bride’s family. Ibangawan dah Ana. They will bring engagement animals for Ana. i‑ ‑an/iN‑ ‑an.
ibangngad (infl. of bangngad) trans. to return something. <The affix cross-references what is being returned.> Ibangngad mu nan binanom an pihhu. Return the money you borrowed. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 7.3.3.2 - Return something.)
ibattan (infl. of battan) trans. to place something in between other things. Ibattan yu nan golang. Place the child in between. i‑/iN‑. 3A Move and position object at site. (sem. domains: 8.5.1.2.2 - Between.)
ibba 1comm. a person who associates with or accompanies another. [ Ifugao generally have companions, both in work and in travel.] Mun-ang-ang kah ibbam. Look for a companion. Dahdiy ibbam an immali? Who was your companion when you came? Sim: ga-it; Sim: kadwa, kuyug. (sem. domains: 4.1 - Relationships.) 2trans. to accompany someone, as a companion. Pinhod mu ta ibbaan daka ke Pedro. Would you like Peter to accompany you? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal-oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.) der. mun-ibba infl. ibbaan
ibbaan (infl. of ibba) trans. to accompany someone. Pinhod mu ta ibbaan daka ke Juan? Would you like for Juan to accompany you? ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 7.2.5 - Accompany.)
ibbuy comm. a ritual feast performed by one who has recently bought something of value, e.g. ricefield, gong, wine jar; the relatives of the buyer help to provide the pigs and other items to be used in the feast, as well as gifts for the seller and his relatives. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.)
ibti (sp. var. bumti) comm. corn that pops when roasted; popcorn. Nuntanom kamih ibti nah habal mu kinan di gando. We planted popcorn in the swidden plot but the rats ate it. i‑. Gen: gahhilang. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.3 - Food from vegetables.)
ibtik muy altem (id. of alte) flee for your life (lit. you run-away with your liver). (sem. domains: 7.2.1.2 - Move quickly.)
ibuk sta. to be decayed, referring to teeth. Munhamuy di toko na te naibuk di bab-ana. His mouth smells bad because his teeth are decayed. Mungkaibuk di bob-ana te hay panganah kindi. His teeth are decaying because of the candies he is eating. ma‑/na‑, mungka‑. Sim: bukbuk. (sem. domains: 8.3.7.8 - Decay.)
ibunat (infl. of bunat) trans. to name after a relative; to use an ancestor’s name. Imbunat nah apunan hi Malayyu. She inherited her grandmother’s name, Malayyu./She is named Malayyu after her grandmother. i‑/iN‑. 3I Direct an action toward an object. (sem. domains: 9.7.1 - Name of a person.)
ibutunit (der. of butunit) trans. to button clothing. Ibutunit mu nan bulwatim. Button up your dress. i‑/iN‑. 3C Move something and combine it with or attach it to something else. (sem. domains: 7.5.2 - Join, attach.)
id’o comm. snake, brownish-green python. [It is said that it comes to the village at night to catch chickens, and then goes back to its hiding place. It is edible and tastes like chicken.] Kinan nan idon ulog nan manuk min mango-ob-ob bo udot. The ido-snake ate our mother hen that was even brooding. (sem. domains: 1.6.1.3 - Reptile.)
idakkayang (infl. of kayang) adjunct. expression of surprise; My, oh my! Idakkayang/idadakkayang di kogam! My oh my! How you cry! Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)
idamu (infl. of damu) trans. to meet someone with something. Idamu yu nan payung te mun-udan. Meet him with the umbrella because it’s raining. i‑/iN‑. 3F Move something along with oneself. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)
idat 1to give. 1.1trans. to give something. Idat mun am-in di pinhod na. Give him all that he wants. i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: idawat. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 1.2trans. to give something to someone; the person to whom the thing is being given is referentially prominent. <The recipient is cross-referenced by the affix.> Idatam hi kanona. Give him something to eat. Indatan dah Pangkah ittay hi dotag ot kanana ot di mun-iyan ad Mamangan. They gave Pangka a small piece of meat and told him to spend the night at Mamangan. ‑an/iN‑ ‑an. 1.3trans. to give an amount of something; the important component is an unspecified amount of a specified thing to be given. Umidat kah pihhu ta botosan daka. Give out some money and we will vote for you. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 1.4trans. the one giving money is contrasted with others, and referentially prominent. Hiyay nangidat hi pihhuk. He was the one who gave me money. mangi‑/nangi‑. 2sta. to be generous; refers to someone who freely gives to others. Makiddat hi Juan. Juan is very generous. infl. mangidat infl. midatan
idawat (infl. of dawat) 1intrans. to give; pass on; to hand over. Idawat mu tun liblu. Pass this book./Give this book. Dahdiy nangidawatam nah pihhu? To whom did you give the money? i‑/iN‑. 3B Move and release object. Sim: idat. (sem. domains: 7.4.1 - Give, hand to.) 2trans. to extend hand, usually with something to be given. Idawat mu nan taklem. Extend your hand. i‑/iN‑.
iday adjunct. oh dear!; expression of surprised dismay or fear. [Intonation and facial expression disambiguates the meaning of this expression] Iday, antipe mampet em impakga? Oh, dear, why did you let him cry? Iday, tipet dekah tu? Oh dear, why are you here? Kanan da kanuy “Iday, dahdiy nangat hitun hiya, etaku ot te ipanuyu da man ke ditaku. According to him, they said “My, who did this to him? Let’s go because they might blame it on us.” Interjection. (sem. domains: 9.2.7 - Interjections.)