Tuwali Ifugao – English


e


e 1to go. 1.1intrans. to move from one place to another; volitional movement with a starting point and a destination; locomotion in a direction away from speaker. <This verb form may appear uninflected and is frequently attached as a pro-clitic to the agent-subject pronoun or the main verb.> Umeyak hi bale. I am going to our house. Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. Eda manibo nadan nangipaptok ketuweh udum an makan mu maid. They (those in charge) went to look for more food but nothing was left. Matukatukal ka an e makitugatugal te mapat-al ya hilong di puntutugalan yu. You stay awake at night to go and join in gambling because your gambling goes on night and day. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 1.2trans. to go and take something with oneself. <The object is cross-referenced.> Iem tun kanon nadan mungngunuh payo. Take the food of the people working in the fields. i‑/iN‑. 1.3trans. the time or place is cross referenced; when or from where someone is leaving. Kon-anay umayan dad Baguio? When are they leaving for Baguio? Ad uwaniy umayan da. They are leaving now. ‑um‑ ‑an/‑imm‑ ‑an. 2intrans. to go towards a specific direction. Mumpaed da-ul nan ahu. The dog went towards the lower area. mumpa‑/numpa‑. 3nom. the place where one goes is cross-referenced; may be used as a greeting. Pangayan yu? Where are you going? Deket naagangan ka ya dakol di pangayan. If you are hungry, there are many places to go. paN‑ ‑an. 4caus. to cause someone or something to go; release or free from prison or an enclosed space. Impae dah Jose an nibalud. They released Jose from jail. Impae na nan tudok. He sent that letter. Impaen Maria hi Juan hi market. Maria sent Juan to market. ipa‑/impa‑. (sem. domains: 7.2.6.4 - Set free.) der. paki-ki-ayan der. pangi-e id. imme infl. ie infl. ine infl. maki-e infl. mange infl. pae infl. pangayan infl. umayan infl. ume
ebew 1intrans. distorted lips when about to cry or when crying. Pun-ebew nan golang dih hinuplit da. The child’s lips were distorted when they spanked him. puN‑. (sem. domains: 3.5.6.1 - Gesture.) 2trans. to distort a particular side of the face. Adim ebewon te ad-adin tibon. Do not distort your face because it is not good to look at. ‑on/‑in‑.
ebidensiya comm. refers to something that furnishes proof of an action or event or something that is said; evidence. (sem. domains: 9.4.5 - Evidentials.)
eda pers. they; this form compounds the marker e with the 3rd person plural pronoun, a member of Set 1 and 2; the form is preposed before the verb in a clause, encodes a subject grammatical relation and may or may not be cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Nadan udum ya eda maniboh wakal. Others, they go to look for vine. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
edaka pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb in the clause, encodes an object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Am-in day tatagu ya edaka hamahamakon. All the people, they will go to look for you. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
edakami pers. we, exclusive; the form is a compound of the marker e with the 2nd person plural exclusive personal pronoun, a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb in the clause, encodes the object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb.. Kanan Juliey “Nganat edakami hinalaman binangun?” Julie asked “Why did you wake us up so early?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
edakayu pers. you, plural; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun; a member of Set 3; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes an object grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the verbal affix. Te edakayu awiton am-in hanadah boblen niayan yu ta ianamut dakayuh tuh boble yu. (Ezekiel 36:24) I will call you from all of the countries where you have gone so that I can return you to your home country. (The agent-subject God is understood in the context.) (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
ehem adv. refers to a long time passing before something is accomplished. Ehem na ad-addi dumatong? What is taking him so long to arrive? Sim: uhup, bayag. (sem. domains: 8.4.2 - Take time.)
ehhe intrans. to cough. muN‑. (sem. domains: 2.5.1 - Sick.)
e-e comm. 1customs; traditions; ways of doing things. Athituy e-en di ibaliwon. These are the ways of lowlanders. Hituwey e-en di aammod taku handi. This is the way of our forefathers long ago. Sim: pangat, pangi-e. (sem. domains: 4.3.9.1 - Custom.) 2characteristics of a person or thing. Athidi tuwali di e-ena. That is really his nature.
e-ele 1comm. refers to an area that is outside of a residential area, Imme dah hilong ot muntalu da nah e-elena. They went while it was dark and hid outside of the camp. 2move away. 2.1intrans. to move away from a particular area. Ume-ele kayu te bumduk man nan bomba. Move away because the bomb will surely explode. Imme-ele da ot datngan da nadan babalen nihag-on nah ob-ob. They went further and reached the houses near the spring. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 7.2 - Move.) 2.2trans. to move something away from a particular area. Ie-elem nan ngalam. Move your noise away. i‑/iN‑.
eka pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person, singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Tipet eka humahallaman an ume yaden maid ni-an di lugan. Why do you go so very early when there are no rides/jeepneys yet. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
ekaw ot ya abu idiom. expresses an evaluation that an event or action is unfortunate. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)
ekayu pers. you-all; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person plural personal pronoun, a member of Set 2; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. “Adik pinhod an ekayu maladaw,” kanan ina da. “I don’t want that you will be late,” said their mother. Deket ekayu makigubat hi buhul yu ya adi kayu tumakut...(Deuteronomy 20:1) When you go to war against your enemies, don’t be afraid... (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
em pers. you, singular; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 2nd person singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 1; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by rhe affix on the verb. Em iayag din binabait mid-um tudah udum an binabai. Call those women to be added to these other women. Em gaudan di payo taku. Go spade our rice field. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
embalsamo (sp. var. baltamo) trans. to prepare a dead body in order to prevent decay for a period of time; to embalm. [In former days, bodies of the dead were not embalmed. Today, it is very important for family members to return home for the burial of any member of the immediate family so embalming a body is important.] Balsamowon da nan nate te ih-od da nah tutulang na. They will embalm the dead person because they are waiting for his siblings. ‑on/in‑. 4A Change the structure of an object. (sem. domains: 2.6.6.3 - Funeral, 2.6.6.5 - Bury.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: balsamar.
embelop 1comm. envelope Ihudum nan tudok mu nah embelop. Place your letter inside the envelope. (sem. domains: 7.3.7.2 - Wrap.) 2trans. to place in an envelope. Iembelop mu nan tudok. Place the letter in an envelope (lit envelop the letter). i‑/iN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.
emeng (sp. var. imeng) 1comm. beard. Mahdol di emeng na. His beard is thick. Kay emeng di paltat di emeng na. His beard is similar to that of a catfish. (sem. domains: 2.1.5 - Hair.) 2comm. mustache; whiskers. Kay emeng di puha di emeng na. His mustache is like that of a cat’s. (few long ones) 3sta. to have a beard, a mustache or any facial hair. Naemengan hi Jose. Jose is bearded. ma‑ ‑an/na‑ ‑an.
emi pers. we, exclusive; the form is a compound of the marker e and the 1st person plural, exclusive personal pronoun, a member of Set 1; the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by the affix on the verb. Kanan nadan muttatyunay “Pinhod mu ke ya emi gabuton?” (Mateo 13:28b) His servants asked “Do you want us to go and spade?” (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
ena₁ int. a tag question form used to evoke confirmation of a statement. Umali ka, ena? You will come, won’t you? Pinhod mun mihaad hitu, ena? You like staying here, don’t you?
ena₂ pers. he, she, it; the form is a compound of e ‘to go’ and the 3rd person singular personal pronoun, a member of Set 1, the form is preposed before the verb, encodes the subject grammatical relation and is not cross-referenced by the verb. Indani ya ena iuduk on mungkulih Lammooy an haniyana. Later on, according to him, he tried to pass under the extended arm yet Lammooy blocked him. (sem. domains: 9.2.3 - Pronouns.)
ena ihongbay adol na (id. of hongba) he is getting into more trouble He is getting into more trouble. (lit. He went to roast his body.) (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)
entra intrans. to report for work. Umentraak hi bigat. I will report for work tomorrow. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
eplon 1comm. apron. Mun-ula ka keh duyu ya usalom nan eplon. If you wash the plates use the apron. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2intrans. to wear an apron. Mun-eplon ka hin hana-ang ka. Wear an apron if you are going to cook. muN‑/nuN‑. Language Of Borrowing: English.
espada (sp. var. of ispada) sword.

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