Tuwali Ifugao - English


a


abkiya 1sta. a group of people, birds or animals scatter in different directions usually as a result of fear. Dingngol da nan tinumkuk ot maabkiya da. They heard a shout and so they scattered in all directions. ma‑. (sem. domains: 7.5.1.1 - Separate, scatter.) 2proc. (fig) each family member chooses to go their own way, resulting in no family unity. Immabkiyay pamilyan Maria te mun-aawit da. Maria’s family have each gone their own way because they are always quarreling. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movment from one place to another. (sem. domains: 4.1.6 - Disunity.)
ablan comm. the loom for weaving; refers to all of the separate pieces. [Formerly, women did a lot of weaving as the grain was ripening so that everyone would have new skirts and loin clothes when people joined together for harvesting and celebrating.] Maid day mun-abol ad uwanin dakol te natalak day ablan. Not many weave today because the looms have been lost. Part: uluwan, lolottan, gul-unnan, baliga, hikittan, kalabig. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.)
ablat intrans. to climb up to a higher place. [This is still used in Lagawe area as common language; Lagawe is thought to be the original area of the Ifugao and the Hanglulo language.] Restrictions: Hudhud epic. Immablatak ad tap-o ot inhabyat ku nah tuktuk di bilid. I climbed upwards and reached the top of the mountain. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. 2A Movement from one place to another. Syn: tikid. (sem. domains: 7.2.2.4 - Move up.)
abnul proc. to swell. Umabnul nan kinalat di ulog. The snake bite is swelling. Immabnul di taklek. My hand is swollen. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. Class 2E Body/Physiological functions. Sim: abilod. (sem. domains: 2.5.6.3 - Swell.)
abobok intrans. 1a rattling sound in throat, in old age or when dying. Mun-abobok di kalin din am-ama. That old man speaks with a rattling sound. muN‑/nuN‑. 1D Sounds . (sem. domains: 2.3.2.3 - Types of sounds.) 2the clattering sound in rapid succession as of automatic guns.
abok 1comm. a mat, anything used to spread on the floor to sleep on. Mahuyopak nah abok. I will sleep on the mat. (sem. domains: 5.1 - Household equipment.) 2trans. to spread a mat or blanket for sleeping. Iabok mu nan ulo. Spread the blanket. Abokam nan dulung ta pungkaddapanan nan golang. Spread a mat on the floor so that the baby can crawl on it. i‑/iN‑, ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Class 3A Move and position object. Syn: api.
abol 1comm. the native loom-woven skirt. (sem. domains: 5.3 - Clothing.) 2weave. 2.1intrans. to weave on a hand loom. Mun-abol hi apu. Grandmother is weaving/weaves. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.6.1.4 - Weaving cloth.) 2.2trans. to weave a particular product on a loom. Nganney iabol mu ad uwani? What will you weave with now? (referring to the thread which is to be used) Wano nan in-abol ku ad nakugab. A loincloth is what I wove yesterday. An maphod di pun-abol nah ampuyo? Does she weave skirts well? i‑/iN‑, puN‑. Class 3C Move, combine or attach object. (sem. domains: 6.6.1 - Working with cloth.) 2.3trans. to weave with a site-object cross-referenced by affix. Abolan dakah ampuyo. I will weave a skirt for you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an.
abono₁ 1intrans. to work without pay, free labor. Mun-abono kayu. You will work for free. muN‑/nuN‑. 1C General class . Sim: baddang, tulung, dang-a. (sem. domains: 6.1 - Work.) 2trans. to pay for something for someone, making it free for them. [If the payment is offered without being requested, it will not be reimbursed.] Abonowam ta ahik bayadan. Pay for me and I will pay you later. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
abono₂ 1comm. fertilizer. 2to fertilize. (sem. domains: 6.2.2.3 - Fertilize a field.) 2.1intrans. to apply fertilizer; a durative activity. Mun-abono takuh bigat. We are going to apply fertilizer tomorrow. muN‑/nuN‑. 2.2trans. to apply fertilizer to plants. Abonowam nan bulhe. Put fertilizer on the beans. Em abonowan nan intanom mu. Go and fertilize what you have planted. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Class 5A Changing state of site by adding something. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
abtu (sp. var. aptu) to anticipate. 1.1trans. to look forward to something; eagerly await someone or something; the affix cross-references that which is anticipated. Abtuwan day aliyana. They are eagerly anticipating her arrival. Abtuwan nay ayan da. He was eager for them to leave. Naabtuwan ka yaden ugge ka immali. You were waited for eagerly, yet you did not come. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an, na‑ ‑an. Class 2C, Emotion and sensation . (sem. domains: 3.2.7.1 - Hope.) 1.2intrans. to anticipate something with impatience; the negative component of waiting and time passing is highlighted; the person feeling the impatience is cross-referenced by the affix. Uma-abtuh Bugan an nunhood ke he-a. Bugan was impatiently waiting for you. Umabtuwak hi kahilongana. I am waiting impatiently for nighttime. ‑um‑/‑imm‑. infl. umab-abtu
abu 1adv. (prim) an adverb that limits and minimizes whatever concept that it modifies, e.g. an action, process, number, emotion. <Morphology: Derivation and compounding are common word formation processes with this morpheme.> Ha-on ya abu di ume. I only will go. Hanada ya abu makahhapul muy gatangom. Spend only for things that you really need. Tinibo mi an hay nidadaan ya abu ya duwan palangganan hinamal. We saw that what was prepared for us was only two basins of rice. Limiting and maximizing. Sim: ampod. (sem. domains: 9.2.2 - Adverbs.) 2adv. (sec) an expression of restriction or limitation. Abu moh nae! Stop that! Abu moy kumodokodoh pihhu. Enough of your begging for money! 3trans. can become a derived verb that cross-references an object. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things seen in Manila. comp. abuna comp. adin-abu comp. ot ya abu der. ab-abbu der. abuwan der. abuy
abugadu 1comm. one who is legally qualified to act for another in matters of civil law; attorney; lawyer. Umayag kah abugadu ta hiyay mangitakdog ke he-a. Call an attorney to defend you. (sem. domains: 4.7.4.1 - Legal personnel.) 2intrans. to do the work of an attorney; practice law. Mun-abugadu nan imbabalena hin maongal. His son will be an attorney when he grows up. muN‑/nuN‑. 3trans. to defend someone in court. Abugaduwan dakan hiya. He will defend you. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. (sem. domains: 4.7.5.4 - Defend against accusation.) Language Of Borrowing: Spanish: abogado.
abukadu 1comm. avocado. Mahong-o tun abukadu. This avocado is delicious. (sem. domains: 5.2.3.1.2 - Food from fruit.) 2sta. for an area to be full of avocado trees. Maabukadu nan muyung da. Their forest has lots of avocado trees. ma‑. Language Of Borrowing: Spanish.
abul trans. to drive away, e.g. small animals, birds. Abulon yu nadan manuk ta adida kanon nan page. Drive away those chickens so that they will not eat the rice. Imme dan mun-abul hi buding. They went to drive away the rice birds. Dahdiy e mun-abul hi payo ad uwani? Who will go to drive away (the rice birds) in the ricefield today. Eyak mun-abul hi buding hi payo. I am going to drive away the rice birds in the fields. Abulom nan manuk ta adi na kanon nan boga. Drive the chicken away so it won’t eat the rice. ‑on/‑in‑, muN‑/nuN‑. 4F Adjacency/Adjoining actions. Sim: dog-al, dulun, dugyun. (sem. domains: 7.3.2 - Move something in a direction.)
abulut accept. Sim: tobal. 1.1trans. (prim) to agree to accept a proposal or a statement. Abulutom an hiyay mangiahawan hiya? Do you accept that he will be the one to marry her? Inabulut nan nan kinali da. He accepted what they said. Kon adi ka mo umabulut? Aren’t you accepting anything/anyone anymore. ‑on/‑in‑. 4E Perception and Cognition. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.9 - Approve of something, 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.) 1.2trans. to consent to something, permit, allow. In-abulut nan ume da. He permitted them to go. Dahdiy nangiabulut? Who consented to it? Uggek in-abulut an ekayu ume. I did not agree that you will go. i‑/iN‑. (sem. domains: 3.2.5.4 - Agree with someone.)
abuna (comp. of abu) advpred. 1it was only; there was only Abunay babuy ya manuk an mundallan. It was only the animals walking about (that she had to play with). Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.3.3 - Unique.) 2 it is only; the predicate modifies and constrains what is asserted. Abuna tuy dingngol ku mipanggep kediyen naat. This is only what I have heard about that case. Kanak pe on no abunay apuy ya kanan gayam ot takon hidiyen lata ya mun-anidu ta. I thought that it is only a fire (that we can acquire heat) and yet even as for that metal (thing), we can warm ourselves. Abunay hukik an nangipakkid nah adol di kaiw, mu ongnga-ongngal ot muntattayunak nah hapang. It was only my legs that held on around the trunk of the tree; but it was very big so I had to hang from a branch. comp. abunadi
abunadi (comp. of abuna) advpred. a compound that expresses the idea that time and effort have been invested in accomplishing a task with little or no result; enough already, don’t bother with more effort. Abunadi ya mun-oonan. Don’t bother anymore, it’s just taking up space. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 3.2.5 - Opinion.)
abung 1comm. a hut; small house; humble home; has a low post and no round disk encircling the posts just below the floor. Waday abung nad abbat. He has a small hut at that nearby place. Umeyak nah abung nan in-ina. I will go to the small hut of the old woman. Sim: bale, kihikugan, allung. (sem. domains: 6.5.1 - Building.) 2trans. to build a hut; to stay in a hut. Mun-abung dad Linda. They are building a hut in Linda. muN‑/nuN‑. (sem. domains: 6.5 - Working with buildings.) der. ab-abbung
abut comm. a hole, generic term. Waday abut nah dingding. There’s a hole in the wall. Sim: lokong, butbut, uwang, guk-ang. (sem. domains: 8.3.1.6.3 - Hollow.) Language Of Borrowing: Ilocano.
abuwan (der. of abu) advpred. this predicate expresses the idea that there is only one reason for what someone is doing or the only thing that is involved; the affix cross-references the action or thing. {This is a modality adverbial predicate that modifies an action.} Hay abuwan tun at-atton dan dakamid uwani ya dog-alon dakami tuh boble. The only thing that they want to do to us now is to drive us away from this barrio. Bokon ya abuwan datuwey matibod Manila. These are not the only things that can be seen in Manila. ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. Limiting or minimalizing. (sem. domains: 8.3.5.3.3 - Unique.)
abuy (der. of abu) exispred. a substitutionary form of an existential predicate that asserts a restriction by referring to the only one or only thing that qualifies in relation to the statement being made. Dadiye ya abuy Ippangyol an niha-ad ad Kiangan. They are the only Spaniards who stayed in Kiangan. Kediye ya pitu ya abuy kinnanan littalit. Those seven were the only bats that he trapped. Limiting and maximizing. (sem. domains: 9.1.1.1 - Exist.)
abyang comm. a tree variety; the wood is often used for studs in building houses because it is a hard wood; yellowish in color. Abyang di ingkapya da. They built, using abyang-wood. (sem. domains: 1.5.1 - Tree.)
abyu trans. to caress the cheeks of someone, usually only women do this to children or older women. Ab-abyuhanah apuna. She is caressing the cheeks of her grandmother. {literary} ‑an/‑in‑ ‑an. 5C Goal oriented sites. (sem. domains: 7.3.4.1 - Touch.)
ad 1determiner 1.1det. this determiner marks spatial-place common nouns. Ipaem ad da-ul. Send her down (to lower place). (sem. domains: 9.2.3.5 - Demonstrative pronouns.) 1.2det. marks place proper nouns. <morphophonemics: When a preceding word ends in a vowel, the vowel ‘a’ drops and the ‘d’ consonant is attached to the verb.> Umed (ume ad) Manila. He will go to Manila. 2det. marks time words: today, yesterday, and day before yesterday. Nuntudokak ke hiya ad ohhandi. I wrote to him the day before yesterday.
ad dalom₁ (n. ph. of dalom) comm. the area below the surface of the earth. Man-ut gagala ya tinummol da, mu ugge da immed dalom di lamut da. (Mateo 135-6b They quickly sprouted, but their roots did not go deep (under the surface of the earth). ...ta hidiye nan am-in wadah luta, hi langit, ad dalom ya mundukkun dah pundayaw dan hiya. (Philippi 2:10) ...therefore, everyone on earth, in heaven and under the earth will kneel in their worship of him. (sem. domains: 8.5.4 - Area.)